The Furukawa Laboratory attempts to understand the molecular basis for cellular signaling initiated by cell surface proteins such as ion channels and receptors. How did nature come up with the method to mediate chemistry that takes place at or around the biological membranes? How do cell surface receptors assemble and regulate their functions to elicit cellular signaling? Can neuroplasticity (memory) and neurodegeneration (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, and etc) be represented by defined patterns of molecular assemblies? We try to answer these fundamental questions by a combination of structural biology, electrophysiology, biochemistry, and biophysics.